CORNMARKET, OXFORD

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1 & 1A Cornmarket Street: Part of Lloyd's Bank


1 and 1a Cornmarket

The numbers 1 and 1A Cornmarket Street ceased to exist in 1926, when Lloyds Bank expanded from its original much smaller office at 2 & 3 High Street into both these former shops. Hence they now have no entrance doors.

From 1903 the shop numbered 1 Cornmarket was on the west side of the large and ornate building that swings around the north-east corner of Carfax from the High Street, while the shop at 1A Cornmarket Street was in the present half-timbered building to the north that dates from 1876 and used to be the Jolly Farmers pub.

The whole of the building that turns the corner is jointly Grade II listed (list entry 1369375), although from the description it is unclear whether No. 1A is included. It was in the parish of St Martin's (Carfax) until that church was demolished in 1896, and then in the parish of All Saints until All Saints Church was deconsecrated in 1971. It is now in the parish of St Michael-at-the-Northgate.


1 Cornmarket in 1835

The former building
at 1 Cornmarket Street

The engraving on the right dates from 1835 and shows the north-east corner of Carfax when the building line came out to a sharp corner.

The shop later known as 1 Cornmarket is on the left-hand side of this building.

Since the address of the Jolly Farmers pub prior to its rebuild in 1876 was given as 1 Cornmarket Street rather than its later address of 1A, it seems likely that the shop which was known as 1 Cornmarket Street after 1876 was until that date simply deemed to be the side of the shop at 1 High Street. This would explain why the original numbering of Cornmarket only began at the pub.

The Creamery at No.1

By 1887, however, the former building at No. 1 Cornmarket was definitely a separate shop, and Smith's Creamery operated there. The advertisement below was published in Jackson's Oxford Journal on 22 March 1890:

Creamery advertisement

The drawing on the left was published in Jackson's Oxford Journal on 21 July 1900 under the heading “CARFAX IMPROVEMENT”. It shows the building housing the Creamery at 1 Cornmarket Street and the shop at 1 High Street that was to be demolished.
Photograph of The Creamery

Lloyds Bank had originally planned to redevelop this corner at the same time as building their bank next door at 2 & 3 High Street, but the matter fell through. After the bank submitted plans for their smaller building, however, the City Council took action, as this was an opportunity to round off the corner and make more room at Carfax. On 28 April 1900 Jackson's Oxford Journal had reported on a special meeting of the city council held three days' earlier where it adopted the General Purposes Committee's report to purchase this corner building from its two owners. No. 1 Cornmarket Street was then leased out to Mr Thackwell Smith at £120 a year.

On 3 November 1900 the newspaper reported that, “In accordance with the resolution of the General Purposes Committee passed on the 27th June last your committee recommend that the Council petition the Local Government Board for authority to acquire, otherwise than by agreement, the property known as the “Creamery,” for the purposes of this street improvement.” Then on 29 December 1900 it reported that “the price to be paid for No. 1, Cornmarket-street, the property of the trustees of St. Aldate's Parochial Charities, will be fixed by agreement or arbitration. The improvement will not be a costly one, as the Corporation will have a valuable business site to dispose of after the improvement has been effected.”

In 1902 Oxford City Council sold 1 and 1A Cornmarket Street to Lloyds Bank (as well as the adjoining shop at 1 High Street). The bank (which had just moved into its new building at 2 & 3 High Street) demolished 1 Cornmarket so that it could complete its building project, but left most of 1A as it was. Until the bank expanded into these premises into the mid-1920s, however, it let these shops out.

  • Photograph of 1896 taken from the north, showing the narrow timbered building at 1A which still exists,
    and The Creamery at No. 1 on the corner in the former building
  • Photograph of 1901, just prior to demolition, showing The Creamery facing Cornmarket
    and Savage's facing the High Street

Jolly Farmers

1A Cornmarket Street

Prior to the rebuilding of 1876

The address of the Jolly Farmers before 1876 was given as 1 rather than 1A Cornmarket Street. The landlord in 1806 was William Hedges. In 1830 the landlord was Edward Midwinter, who was also a printer: he died here at the age of 38 in 1836, and in the report of his death published in Jackson's Oxford Journal on 10 September 1836, the pub is named as the Jolly Farmers. See table below for the names of later landlords.

By 1872 it was known as the Original Jolly Farmers (presumably to distinguish it from the newer pub of that name in Paradise Street, which was open by 1840). It was a small pub, not much more than a beerhouse, and its landlords were not subject to a university wine licence. The censuses show no live-in servants.

The earlier pub building was demolished in 1876.

Present 1876 building (shown right)

On 21 October 1876 Jackson's Oxford Journal reported:

A great improvement has been effected in Corn Market-street by the demolition of the old "Jolly Farmers" public house, and the erection of a new building of rather novel and unique design, which is intended to be carried on as a public-house in future. Mr. H. J. Tollit is the architect, and Mr. Selby the builder.

This new building of 1876 is shown on the right, and (except for the ground floor) its frontage has survived. The new pub did not last long, however: in 1887 the Jolly Farmers “died out as an acting house for want of trade”, as there were “13 other such houses” in Cornmarket. (Its licence, however, continued to be renewed for two years, and Jackson’s Oxford Journal records a dispute over the licence, which was eventually resolved in October 1890, when it was transferred to 1 Donnington Road.)

The building then became a shop, and in 1887 there was a stationer here at 1A Cornmarket. It is last listed as a separate shop in Kelly's Directory for 1925. Since then it has been incorporated into Lloyds Bank.

 


Samuels at 1 Cornmarket

The present building at 1 Cornmarket Street

By 1902 both 1 Cornmarket and 1 High Street on the corner of Carfax had been demolished so that Phase 2 of the new building by Stephen Salter could be completed.

The present ornate building was designed by Stephen Salter. Pevsner wrote that it “shows the consequences of seeing too much Jackson about every day. There is nowhere that motifs don’t sprout, alternately blocked columns, Ipswich windows, big, steep shaped gables”.

Initially Lloyds Bank just moved into Nos. 2 & 3 High Street, and so 1 High Street and 1 & 1A Cornmarket Street continued as separate shops on the corner.

Nos. 1 and 1A remained separate shops at ground-floor level until Lloyds Bank (which had purchased them in 1902) expanded into both of them in the mid-1920s.

 

 

Right: The new building at 1 Cornmarket in about 1915, when 1 Cornmarket Street was occupied by H. Samuel the jeweller, and the narrow shop at 1A to the north was a stationer's

Occupants of 1 and 1A Cornmarket in directories etc.

(No. 1A is the same throughout, but No. 1 was rebuilt in 1903)

Date

No. 1A (left) No. 1 (right)

By 1830–1872+

The Original Jolly Farmers (in earlier building). Some landlords
(not subject to nineteenth-century university wine licences):
Edward Midwinter (1830–1836)
M. A. Midwinter (1839)
Edward Sutton (1841–1852)
Miss Mary Burton (1861)
James Simmonds (1867)
William Hunt (1868–1872)

Appears to be
part of 1 High Street

1876

Rebuilt

1878–1887

Jolly Farmers (current building). Last two landlords:
Joseph Henry Gynes (1878)
Thomas Young Bing (1880 & 1881)

1890–1902

A. C. Vivian, Stationer

Smith & Co (“The Creamery”)

1902–1903

Rebuilt

1905–1916+

H. Samuel, Jeweller

1921–1925

Clifford (Thomas) Son & Cole Ltd
Auctioneers and estate agents

1926 onwards

No longer listed separately under Cornmarket, as both the 1876 shop at 1A to the north
and the 1903 shop at 1 to the south were now part of Lloyds Bank in the High

1 and 1A Cornmarket Street in the censuses

The address of the Jolly Farmers was 1 Cornmarket until 1876, and the numbers 1 & 1A are only used after 1876

1841

Edward Sutton (40), whose main trade was that of a tailor, lived here at the Jolly Farmers with William (15), Matilda (10), and Mary Sutton (5). Also in the house was Fanny Midwinter (5), probably his niece, which implies that he was the brother-in-law of the previous landlord, Edward Midwinter (see list of landlords above).

1851

Edward Sutton (54), now described as “tailor & publican”, was still here at the Jolly Farmers with his wife Matilda (54), daughters Elizabeth (24), Matilda (21) and Mary (17), and his son Edward (19), a tailor. Also in the household was Sutton’s nephew Thomas Sutton (21), who was a a tailor, and his niece Mary A. Midwinter (25), who was a dressmaker. Also living with them were draper’s assistant William Brown (25) and four other lodgers.

1861

Miss Mary Burton (55) was now the publican at the Jolly Farmers, living here with two lodgers (a tailor and a college servant).

1871

William Hunt (57), licensed victualler, lived here at the Jolly Farmers with his wife Eliza (57) and their son William (17). A family with the surname Gynes was boarding with them (later to become landlord), and they had one servant.

The pub was rebuilt in 1876

1881

No. 1: Thomas Bing (40), publican, lived here at the Jolly Farmers with his wife Oxford-born wife Sarah (25) and daughter Clara (3).

No. 1A: Abraham Zacharias (62), born in Prussia, was a silversmith here, living above his shop with his London-born wife Leah (64) and his children Rosa (31), Joel (29), Esther (28), and Theresa (26). His son Joel was a china and glass dealer at 27 Cornmarket at this time.

The Jolly Farmers' pub closed in the late 1880s, and a shop opened in the building

1891

No. 1: Miss Marian Smith (24), a restaurant manager, lived over the Smith & Co Creamery with her brother Frank (16) and sister Sophy (15), who worked as her assistants,

No. 1A: Elizabeth Vivian (52) lived here on her own means with her son Arthur (27), who ran the stationery shop downstairs. They had one domestic servant.

1901

No. 1: Miss Marian Smith (30), manageress of the creamery on the ground floor, lived here with an assistant and a general servant.

No. 1A: Mary Vivian (38) a widowed stationer, lived here over her shop with her sons John (6) and Arthur (5). There was a stationer's assistant boarding with her, and she had one servant.

The No. 1 was rebuilt in 1902, but No. 1A remained as before.

1911

No listing: presumably a store room for H. Samuel the jeweller at the new shop at No. 1 and for Vivian's stationer's shop at the original No. 1A.

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