CORNMARKET, OXFORD

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62–65 Cornmarket Street: HSBC Bank


HSBC Bank in 2009

This present building was built in 1896/7 and is owned by Oxford City Council. It was designed by Henry Thomas Hare and is Grade II listed (list entry 1186063).

The former shops were here in the parish of St Martin's (Carfax) until that church was demolished in 1896, and the new building was in the parish of St Martin's & All Saints until All Saints Church was deconsecrated in 1971. It is now in the parish of St Michael-at-the-Northgate.


The four former properties on this site to 1896, including the Sun Inn

In the late eighteenth century Isaac Board, a saddler, had a fourth share in these four properties, which he had bought from William Denton. Following Board's death in 1794 they were divided up: his widow Sarah received No. 62, and Thomas Booth and William Carter the Nos. 63, 64, and 65.

  • No. 62: This was a shop with no premises behind. Arthur Frederick Rose bought it from the draper William Oliver on 10 December 1879 for £995, and the City of Oxford bought it from Rose for £2,500 on 20 April 1896.
  • No. 63 (the Sun Inn from at least 1605) was in behind No. 64 (the shop in front). On 5 February 1896 City of Oxford bought these premises from Thomas Arthur Carr for £19,000
  • No. 64: C. Bowen, who opened a mercer’s shop here in mid-1837, named this building Victoria House in honour of the new queen who had just succeeded to the throne.  
  • No. 65: This was a small house with the churchyard behind. It belonged first to Osney Abbey and then to Christ Church, and was acquired by the City of Oxford on 25 March 1895 in return for six acres in Sidelings and £1,000. From 1817 it was the office of Jackson's Oxford Journal

Jackson's Oxford Journal at No.65

Jackson's Oxford Journal
at 65 Cornmarket

William Jackson had founded a weekly electioneering newspaper which became Jackson's Oxford Journal in May 1753. He died on 22 April 1792, but his newspaper continued until 2 October 1909. and then became the Oxford Journal Illustrated.

In 1816 Jackson's Oxford Journal was bought by its printers, Grosvenor & Hall. From that date the former building here at 65 Cornmarket was its printing office. Initially it adjoined the medieval St Martin's Church, and the engraving on the right, dating from c.1819, shows a glimpse of the printing office with the letters “JACK...” visible over the door. This church was demolished and replaced in 1820, and the office then adjoined the new church until that too was demolished in 1896.

By 1828 the publishers of the newspaper were Jonathan Lowndes and Charles Haldon. The printer was Henry Hall of Barton Abbey, Steeple Barton, whose family founded Hall's Brewery in Oxford.

In the 1840s, the following information appeared at the end of the back page of Jackson's Oxford Journal:

Printed by and for HENRY HALL (residing at Barton, in the county of Oxford), at his Printing Office, adjoining Carfax Church, Corn Market, in the Parish of Saint Martin, Oxford; and published at the Printing Office aforesaid by CHARLES HALDON, of No. 24, St. John-street, in the Parish of St. Giles, and JONATHAN LOWNDES, of No. 98 Holywell-street (both in the suburbs of the City of Oxford), Booksellers and Stationers.

(Henry Hall lived at Barton Abbey, Steeple Barton.)

From 1810 to 27 September 1862 the price of the newspaper was 5d., but this was reduced to 4d. from the edition of 4 October 1862 and to 3d. by 19 May 1866.

Jonathan Lowndes ran his stationery shop here at the newspaper office. His publishing partner Charles Haldon died in 1847, and in 1848 Jonathan Lowndes went into partnership with his son Jonathan William Lowndes.

During the seven days after the publication of the edition of 25 September 1847 Jonathan Lowndes and the Jackson’s Oxford Journal Printing Office both moved from 98 to 97 Holywell Street.

The printing office remained here at 65 Cornmarket until January 1850, when it moved with Lowndes to 100 Holywell Street, and thereafter this building in Cornmarket was just the publishing office. The rubric at the end of each newspaper edition then read:

Printed by and for HENRY HALL, (residing at Barton, in the County of Oxford), at the Printing Office, No. 100 Holywell Street, in the Parish of Holywell, Oxford; and published at No. 65, Corn Market Street, adjoining St. Martin’s Church, in the City of Oxford aforesaid, by JONATHAN LOWNDES and JONATHAN WILLIAM LOWNDES, of the said Parish of Holywell.

On 15 April 1854 the newspaper doubled in size from four to eight pages, but the price remained at 5d.)

Henry Hall died at Barton Abbey on 17 November 1862, and from then until 1871 the paper was printed for the Trustees of Henry Hall.

Jonathan Lowndes died on 26 January 1867. His son Jonathan William Lowndes (d.1888) took over as sole publisher of the newspaper.

From 1871 it was described as being printed for the Proprietor (unnamed). The following appeared at the end of each edition in the 1880s:

Printed for the PROPRIETOR, at the Printing Office, No. 100, Holywell Street, in the Parish of Holywell, in the City of Oxford, by THOMAS LUCAS, of No. 20, Beaumont Buildings, in the Parish of St. Giles; and Published at 65, Corn Market Street, adjoining Saint Martin's Church, by HUGH HALL, of the Parish of Holywell, in the aforesaid City.

From 1888 to at least 1895 it was still printed at 100 Holywell Street, but the printer was now James Talbot (of 40 Princes Street and later of 10 Hurst Street).

By January 1899 Jackson's Oxford Journal had been bought by the Oxford Times Company and the notice read:

Printed for the Proprietors by the Oxford Times Co. and published at No. 13, Castle-street, Oxford.

By the end of that year their printing office had moved to Red Lion Square.


The Sun Inn at 63 Cornmarket (behind No. 64)

On 11 June 1809 A. Hughes announced in Jackson's Oxford Journal that he had taken over the Sun Inn in Cornmarket, and that it had wines and liquors of the first quality, good beds and excellent stabling, and a good Ordinary (postal courier) on Saturdays at 1pm.

James Wickens senior was the licensee of the Sun Inn to 1839, and he was followed by James Wickens junior from 1839 to 1861. The flagon on the left below is inscribed:
J. WICKENS / WINE & SPIRIT MERCHANT / SUN INN / OXFORD
and the one on the right which is probably of a later date reads:
“THE SUN” / WHOLESALE / Wine & Spirit Stores / 63, CORN MARKET / OXFORD

Two flagons of the Sun Inn

In 1896 the original shops here at Nos. 62, 63, 64, and 65 Cornmarket Street were demolished as part of the Carfax Improvement Scheme, which also saw the demolition of most of St Martin's Church to the south and the three shops in the old Crown Inn building to the north.


The present building since 1897

This present building was built in 1896/7 and is owned by Oxford City Council. It was designed by H. T. Hare as two shops plus an entrance to the right leading to the Sun Vaults. The shop on the corner to the south at Nos. 64/65 had large windows facing both Queen Street and Cornmarket, while the one to the north at No. 63 was smaller. The number 62 was no longer used.

In 1897 the tailor Frank East moved into the larger shop to the south, and the Sun Wine Vaults to the shop to the north.

In 1914 the London City and Midland Bank took over the Metropolitan Bank, so their branch at 61 Cornmarket (adjacent to this site closed). In the same year the London City & Midland Bank (later renamed the Midland Bank and now HSBC) moved into Frank East's former shop at 64 & 65 Cornmarket Street, and has remained there to the present day

The Sun Vaults remained down a passage to the right of the new building until the early 1920s.

The photographs below show the southern part of the new building (left) when it was Frank East’s draper’s shop and (right) after the Midland Bank had taken it over. The wall lantern in the photograph on the left advertises the Sun Billiard Rooms down the side passage: later this was the way into the Carfax Assembly Rooms.

No 65, draper's shop   Old Midland Bank

Carfax Assembly Rooms

In 1925 the Carfax Assembly Rooms were built to the right of the present bank building for Messrs Weeks & Co., replacing the Sun Vaults (see drawing in the Oxford Journal Illustrated of 19 August 1925, p. 14). This is presumably the firm of George E. Weeks & co., which had run the City Restaurant at 4 Cornmarket since 1909 and a baker's & confectioner's shop at 15 Cornmarket since 1905.

The assembly rooms were reached via a side passage. The downstairs premises were small and used for meetings, while the upstairs room where dances were held was larger, presumably spreading over part of Bank House above the bank.

In May 1936 Oswald Mosley held a meeting at the Carfax Assembly Rooms, and Hugh Trevor-Roper wrote to his mother that protesters were set upon by Blackshirt “stewards” armed with truncheons, adding:

Great damage to the Blackshirts was done by one of the dons of Christ Church [Frank Pakenham, later Long Longford], who, being struck over the head by a Blackshirt with a steel chain, was roused to a berserk fury.

In the 1960s the Oxford University Jazz Club met at the Carfax Assembly Rooms, and the Beatles performed here in February 1963.

In 1959 it cost 2s 6d. to go to a dance here, and Eddie Turton who came from Kidlington was the resident band at “the Carfax”, as it was known.

The Carfax Assembly rooms closed in the late 1960s, and in 1971 a change of use from shop, restaurant, and hall to shop was approved (planning application 71/19093/A_H).

Expansion of the Bank

In 1986 the Midland Bank expanded into the premises to the north to use it for offices (86/00771/NFH), and then changed it to banking use in 1988 (88/00990/NFH).

In 1999 the Midland Bank was renamed HSBC (Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation).

The FORMER houses on the site 62–65 Cornmarket Street listed in directories etc. to 1896

Date

No. 65 (left) No. 64 (middle) No. 63 (behind No. 64) No. 62 (right)

1817

Jackson’s
Oxford
Journal
Office

 

 

?

The Sun (aka the
Sun Stores
,
the Sun Vaults, and the
Sun Wine & Spirit Stores)

Landlords
1605: Matthew Harrison

Later landlords (subject to University wine licences):
1791, 1793: Mary Davis
1823: Richard Gurden
1830: James Wickens sen.
1839–1861: James Wickens

1865: Frederick Rose
1867: Executors of the late
          Frederick Rose
1871: Charlotte Rose
1872: F. Rose
1880: Rose and Stringer
1884: Alfred F. Rose
1887: Alfred F. Rose (proprietor)
          and G. Lowles (manager)

1890: M. F. E. Bush, mgr

The hair cutter Charles Chaundy had these premises from 1830 to late 1845

1839

Charles Bowen
Linen draper

1846

Thomas Eldred
Bootmaker

1848–
1852

Harman John Howland
Draper


1852–
1861

W. & S. Oliver
then from February 1856
William Oliver
Linen draper
& mourning
warehouse

William Sumersford
Stationer & paper bag manufacturer

1861–
1867

1872

Phillips Bros,
Burton Ale Stores

1880

Frank East
Linen draper, silk mercer, costume, mantle, and bonnet warehouse

A. Shepherd
Tailor & robe maker

1890

Not listed (nor are
Nos. 59, 60 & 61 to north)

* Proprietors: Jonathan Lowndes (1872): T. F. Plowman (1880); Hugh Hall (1890) Other people listed in the Jackson’s Oxford Journal premises were:

  • 1839: Haldon & Lowndes, Publishers
  • 1846: Haldon & Lowndes, Stationers; and Henry Hall, Printer
  • 1867: United Kingdom Electric Telegraph Office; and S. E. Robinson, Auctioneer & estate agent
  • 1872: W. Peppercorn, Solicitor
  • 1880: Offices of the Oxford Corn Exchange Co. Ltd., and of the Oxfordshire Agricultural Society
  • 1890: Arthur Edwin Preston, Chartered Accountant
The PRESENT building at 62–65 Cornmarket Street listed in directories etc. from 1898

Dates

64 & 65 (left)

Premises behind
(sometimes numbered 63)
& upstairs

No. 63 (right)
(sometimes numbered 62)

1898–1911

Frank East
Draper

Sun Wine & Spirit Stores
(1899–1921)

Sun Vaults public house
(Paul Roder & Son)
(1911)

Managers:
1901–1909: J. Holder
1921: Arthur Gerkin

Probably part of the Sun Vaults

(After 1925 it was a small shop to the right of the entrance to the new Carfax Assembly Rooms with a kiosk in the passage)

1914

London City & Midland Bank Ltd

 

Renamed
Midland Bank Ltd
by 1925

1921

1927–1947

CARFAX ASSEMBLY ROOMS

plus

Gridiron Club from 1927–1947

YMCA from 1927 to 1947

Ministry of Labour in
Bank Chambers from 1945 to 1966

Co-op from 1949 to 1966
(listed from 1952 as the
Co-op Carfax Cafeteria
)

Orchid Rooms:
Orchid Restaurant in 1967

Stephanus P. Ora
Tobacconist

1949–1967

Oxford & District
Co-operative Society Ltd
Tobacconists

1968

No listing

1970

Oxford & District
Co-operative Society
Carpet Centre

1972

Chaussures Ravel

1973

No listing

1976

Vacant

1986–present

Midland Bank
renamed HSBC in 1999

The former shops at 62–65 Cornmarket Street in the censuses

1851

No. 62:The stationer Henry Sumersford (21) lived here with his sister Martha (26) as his housekeeper

No. 63: James Wickens, the landlord of the Sun, was obviously away on census night, as the only occupants were Frederick J. Wickens (16), described as the son of the head of the household, and a barmaid and a general servant.

No. 64: The linen-draper Harman J. Howland (31) lived over his shop. He was described as the employer of two men and two women, and these four lived on the premises with him. They had one female servant.

No. 65: The trunk-maker Thomas P. Pavier (35) lived here with his wife Eliza (33).

1861

No. 62: William Sumersford (26), a coachman, lived here with his sister, Martha Sumersford, as his housekeeper. Both were unmarried.

No. 63: The Sun: John Slatter (41), a wine merchant’s clerk, lived here with a porter.

No. 64: William Oliver (46), linen draper lived here with his wife Eliza (42) and children Clara (5) and Horace (4). He was described as the employer of sixteen hands, and half of them (four shopwomen and four draper’s apprentices) lived over the shop with their master. The household had three female domestic servants.

No. 65: A mason’s labourer, Edward Simms (33) lived here with his wife Ann (39), who was the housekeeper for the offices below.

1871

No. 62: William Sumersford (26), now a stationer, lived over his shop with his sister Martha (39).

No. 63: The Sun Vaults: Eliza Rose (37), the housekeeper of the head of the household (presumably the current landlady Charlotte Rose) lived here with a cook and the hotel manager, Richard Wellington.

No. 64: Two servants, seven shop assistants, a clerk, and an apprentice lived over Frank East's drapery store.

No. 65: John Archer (42), a general labourer, was the lodger here with his wife Jemima (36), described as a housekeeper. Four draper's salesmen also lived on the premises.

1881

No. 62: Now the Burton Ale Stores, the living accommodation is listed as unoccupied.

No. 63: The “Sun Wine Vaults” at No. 63 were occupied by the widow Mrs Eliza Rose (69), described as head of the household and presumably the owner of the business. Living with her were Edward Stokes, described as her servant, who was a “Manager Wine Merchant”, and a female general servant.

No. 64: A draper’s assistant, Thomas Baker (26) was the head of the household over Shepherd’s tailor’s shop. Eight other young draper’s assistants (three male and five female) and one draper’s apprentice also lived in the household, and they had just one 16-year-old girl serving as a domestic servant. (Arthur Shepherd (47), their employer, lived in Woodstock Road with his wife and four children.)

No. 65: John Archer (53), a general labourer, still lived here with his wife Jemima (46), who was the housekeeper for the offices on the ground floor.

1891

No. 62 & 63: Sun Wine Vaults: Martin Bush (32), a wine & spirit merchant's manager, lived here with his wife Emily (31) and their children Emily (8) and Dorothy (6). They had two general servants.

No. 64: Thirteen draper's assistants boarded here, looked after by two domestic servants.

No. 65: George Phillips (24), a solicitor, lived here with two servants (both described as caretakers).

Rebuilt in 1896/7
1901

Nos. 62 & 63:Josiah Holder (49), a wine merchant, lived here with his son-in-law Percy Parker (28), who was his assistant in the business, his daughter Ada Parker (28), who acted as his housekeeper, and his grandchildren Grace Parker (5) and Donald Parker (1). A barmaid lived with them, and they had two domestic servants.

Nos. 64 & 65: Ernest Wilson (38), a draper's assistant, lived over Frank East's draper's shop with ten boarders (seven other draper's assistants, one draper's apprentice, a milliner, and a dressmaker), plus two domestic servants.

1911

Nos. 62 & 63: Paul Loder (51), publican, lived in five rooms here at the Sun Vaults with his wife Carrie (31) and his son Fred (22), who assisted in the business, and their general servant.

Nos. 64 & 65: Ernest Edward Wilson (48), the unmarried manager of Frank East's drapery establishment, lived in nine rooms over this shop with ten members of his staff: two buyers, five shop assistants, a housekeeper, and a domestic servant.

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